Psychosocial Crisis Central Task Positive Outcome Ego Quality Definition Developmental Task
Infancy

Birth-18 Months
Trust
vs.
Mistrust
Receiving care Trust in people and the environment Hope Enduring belief that one can attain one’s deep and essential wishes Social attachment;

Maturation of sensory, perceptual, and motor functions;

Primitive causality
Younger Years

18 Months-3 Years
Autonomy
vs.
Shame & doubt
Imitation Pride in self;

Assertion of will in the face of danger
Will Determination to exercise free choice and self-control Locomotion;

Fantasy play;

Language development;

Self-control
Early Childhood

3-6 Years
Initiative
vs.
Guilt
Identification Able to initiate activities and enjoy learning Purpose Courage to imagine and pursue valued goals Sex-role identification;

Early moral development;

Self-esteem;

Group play;

Egocentrism
Middle Childhood

6-12 Years
Industry
vs.
Inferiority
Education Acquire skills for and develop competence in work;

Enjoy achievement
Competence Free exercise of skill and intelligence in completion of tasks Friendship;

Skill learning;

Self-evaluation;

Team play
Early Adolescence

12-18 Years
Group Identity
vs.
Alienation
Peer group A strong group identity;

Ready to plan for the future
Loyalty Ability to freely pledge and sustain loyalty to others Physical maturation;

Emotional development;

Membership in peer group;

Sexual relationships
Later Adolescence

18-22 Years
Individual Identity
vs.
Identity Confusion
Role experimentation Strong moral identity;

Ready for intimate relationships
Fidelity Ability to freely pledge and sustain values and ideologies Autonomy from parents;

Sex-role identity;

Internalized morality;

Career choice
Early Adulthood

22-34 Years
Intimacy
vs.
Isolation
Caregiving Form close relationships and share with others Love Capacity for mutuality that transcends childhood dependency Stable relationships;

Child rearing;

Work etc
Middle Adulthood

34-60 Years
Generativity
vs.
Stagnation
Creativity Nurturing children or helping the next generation in other ways Care Commitment to and concern for family and community Nurture close relationships;

Management of career and household;

Parenting
Later Adulthood

60-75 Years
Integrity
vs.
Despair
Introspection A sense of fulfillment about life;

A sense of unity with self and others
Wisdom Detached yet active concern with life in the face of death Promote intellectual vigor;

Redirect energy to new roles and activities;

Develop a point of view about death
Old Age

75 Years-Death
Immortality
vs.
Extinction
Social Support Life review;

Accept death with a sense of integrity and without fear
Confidence Conscious trust in self and assurance about meaningfulness of life Cope with physical changes of aging;

Develop a historical perspective;

Storytelling
Erik Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
Extracted from "Wikipedia" on January 27, 2006 ~ Presented in tabular form by "Parenting the Next Generation"