The Arctic
In general, the Arctic describes everywhere north of the Arctic Circle where the sun keeps on shining day after day in summer.

Plants do not survive at the north pole. Closer to the Arctic Circle, plants survive by staying small. Leaves make use of SUNLIGHT, carbon dioxide & water to make food.
In the cold, dry Arctic, only mosses, lichens (fungi) & short SHRUBS grow. Flowers are small and bloom near the ground where the air is not so cold.

Trees grow only along the banks of river. Conifers have adapted by having branches that slope downward to throw off the snow.
LICHENS, a fungus, are found growing directly on the ground & rocks where birds poop. One common lichens is the bright orange jewel lichen. Caribou eat lichens.

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